77c-Serrapede Family in America-Emily meets Frank’s family Part 4

Introduction

Emily’s friends and classmates at Bay Ridge High School often asked her where she planned to live after she got married.  Her fiancé’s parents owned a two family home.  It was a natural question to ask since in the Italian-American community parents that owned two family or multi-family dwellings liked to have their married son or daughter live in the same home with them. 

Tradition was one factor that encouraged this.  An older son, especially if the father had died, became the head of the family.  His presence in the household was a sign that his mother and siblings were not alone and were being looked after.  If the eldest child was a female, then she and her husband were encouraged to live in the house.  The eldest daughter looked after her family and her husband’s presence in the house was a sign that as a couple, they were ensuring the stability of the family.  This in no way diminished the son-in-law’s relationship with his family although it could become a source of friction during holidays and special events when the couple had to decide who to give priority to when it came time to visit or entertain the relatives.

The practical considerations at work were important in determining if the newlyweds decided to live with the parents of the bride or groom.  Rents were usually lower since the parents wanted the couple to save money and buy their own home one day.  While this was a great help there were many trade-offs the couple made in terms of privacy and freedom of movement.

The conversations Emily had with her schoolmates about where she and Frank would live after they married became very irritating. Some of the girls she spoke to took the fact that Blanche and Al owned a two-family house and spun stories all around it despite a few other facts:  these girls never met Blanche, Al or saw how much work went into running their two-family house.  At one point the idle talk described her future in-law’s home as a “money-making machine”.  “A guaranteed source of income” was what several others called it.  As Emily got to know Blanche, her future Mother-in-law, and Maureen, her future Sister-in-law, she learned that in order to get that guaranteed source of income a good landlord had to run the house just like a business.  There were expense records to keep for tax purposes.  Then there interviews with prospective tenants and checking out their references.  There was also the ongoing maintenance of the house to consider, as well as finding reliable handymen, plumbers, carpentars, roofers and so on.  The family story shared in this posting shows that even with all favorable factors in place, landlord-tenant relationships could turn volatile.  Without a periodic inspection of how the tenant maintained the rooms rented to them, the landlord was in for a shock when the tenant finally moved out.

The family story shared in this posting begins in the late 1940s after Emily met Frank and his family.  It concludes in the mid-1950s before Frank’s sister, Maureen, got married.

Relationship Notes

Emily L. Serrapede was born in 1931 to Sam and Josie (nee Muro) Serrapede.  She grew up in Dyker Heights, Brooklyn, NY and graduated from Bay Ridge High School in January 1948 with a Commercial Diploma.  Emily met Frank, her future husband, during her Junior year of high school.  Emily had two younger brothers.  Gerry, born in 1938, passed away in 1941 because he contracted pneumonia.  Sammy, also known as Junior, was born in 1943.

Frank J. Terry* met Emily through the boyfriend of one of her best friends, Alma Rodriguez.  Frank was the son of Blanche and Al Terry*.  He was born in 1927, served stateside in the Navy during WWII, and was working with his father at Fleming-Joffe, a leather importer, when he met Emily.

Al and Blanche Terry* were married in Brooklyn Boro Hall in 1926.  They rented a house in Tabor Court during the early years of their marriage before buying the two-family home on 14th Avenue in the early 1930s.  Blanche and Al’s other children were:

Alfred (1929-2008)

Robert (1931-1977)

Maureen (1934-1995)

Bonita (Bunny)was the daughter of the tenants who lived in the apartment on the third floor of Blanche and Al’s two-family house.  Bonita’s father was a widower at an early age and asked his daughter to remain with him and help care for the family.  Although Bonita was older, Maureen and her got along very well.  Maureen became very attached to Bonita and nicknamed her Bunny. 

Family Story:  Home Owership is a business

Blanche and Al rented a house in Tabor Court after their marriage in 1926.  Tabor Court was built in the early 1920s and was considered something exclusive and affordable only to families who were doing well financially.  That is because the homes were situated on a street that was gated on both sides.  This prevented any through traffic by vehicles and enabled the children of the homeowners to have a safe area to play in.  The back of each house faced the street and also had a nice entrance by means of a gate and a small garden.  The mailboxes were placed at this back entrance.

Josie, Sam and Emily always commented that Blanche and Al should have stayed at Tabor Court and waited for one of the houses there to go on sale.  For some reason Emily and her family could not understand, Blanche and Al decided they didn’t want to remain there.  In the early 1930s they bought a two family home on 14th Avenue in Dyker Heights.  When Emily and Frank were going steady, Al hired contractors to work on the first floor of the house.  He had a finished bar put in, complete with swiveling bar stools, and shelves on which to put the liquor, syrups and bottles of maraschino cherries with which he made such drinks as Manhattans.  There was a radio below the bar and speakers were set up high on the walls in the corner of the dining area.  The first floor was where the family gathered for meals on weekdays.

Blanche’s little kitchen off the dining area was compact but complete.  There was a half door which she could close to keep the children out when they were toddlers.  She could look out to make sure they stayed in the area outside the kitchen where they played until dinner was ready.

Emily liked Blanche and Al’s house but thought that there were too many steps from the first to second floors.  The third floor apartment also had too many steps to climb as well.  Since she had lived on the first floor of an apartment building all her life, Emily found it odd to have to climb up so many steps to enter Frank’s house on those days when Blanche and Al were entertaining.  It was at those times the second floor entrance was used since it led to the living room and fancy kitchen where the family set-up buffet style meals for visitors. 

Maureen often complained to Emily that this was the only thing about the house she didn’t like.  Even the stairway up to the apartment on the third floor was steep.  That was where Maureen’s friend Bunny lived with her husband, father, baby and brothers. 

At the top of the steep and narrow staircase was a little vestibule with a door that led into a large kitchen with two big windows on the left.  There was an ironing board built one wall.  To either side of it were little shelves where plants or knick knacks could be displayed.  From the kitchen, to the right was a doorway leading into a large dining room.  Towards the front and right off of the dining room was a medium sized living room on the left and a small bedroom with a door on the right.  The living room had three large windows, the smaller bedroom one and the dining room one.

To the left of the kitchen there ran a long hallway off of which was a bathroom with a wooden door, and an old fashioned tub with clawed feet.  There was a window with frosted glass panes by the tub.  Further down the hall was another bedroom the same size as Maureen’s on the second floor.  The larger bedroom in the back also was as large as Blanche and Al’s on the second floor.

Bunny’s father was a widower who had several sons in addition to his one daughter.  They all remained at home with their Dad even though they were older and earning a living.  Bunny got married and told Maureen she wanted to move out but stayed because her Dad needed her.  Then Bunny had a baby.  There were about 6 adults and now one infant living upstairs.  Blanche and Al never complained.  Emily thought that they permitted the family to stay because Maureen was very attached to Bunny.

Al told Emily that he thought Bunny was a “swell kid who was always vacuuming and shaking out the dust mop, hanging out the clothes to dry, shopping and preparing the meals.”  Blanche even commented that the apartment looked tidy whenever she went up to get the rent check.

One day Bunny announced that together with her brothers and her husband, the family saved enough money to buy their own house.  After they moved out, Blanche and Maureen showed Emily the apartment.  Blanche was very disgusted at how Bunny had covered up what she considered bad housekeeping.  The bathtub had always had the shower curtain drawn around it because as Bunny would say, “it has to dry”.  Now that it wasn’t there Blanche could see the mildew on the tiles that she could not see before because the shower curtains prevented it.  The bath tub had a serious ring around it and dust underneath.  There was a hole in the bathroom door where a hook had been upon which a bathrobe always hung.  When Maureen reached for the doorknob on the bathroom door it came loose.  

Bonita had been vacuuming, Blanche said, but she must have been pushing it around any part of the floor where there wasn’t furniture or toys.  Now Blanche found the woodwork where the furniture had been grimy and dust in the corners of the floors in each room.  In the bedrooms there were scratches on the walls and grime around the switch plates.

The closet under the kitchen sink was sticky and bottles of bleach and bluing were still there.  There were still crumbs where the toaster had been on the counter near the sink and the ironing board cover was missing when Maureen opened it to take a look.

Blanche and Al decided to take their time fixing up the apartment.  Emily remembered that it needed a serious deep cleaning before it could be papered and painted.  Even the floors needed a good scrubbing before new linoleum or rugs could be put down.  The neighbors did not know how much work was needed in the apartment.  All they knew was that the rooms were vacant.  Even though some neighbors were not keen on Blanche, Al was very popular.  He was the one the neighbors approached when inquiring if the rooms were for rent.

Blanche was in charge of running the house.  Al left most of the day-to-day maintenance up to her.  He would select a repairman or plumber and review the projected costs of any work to be done.  But Blanche was the one who had to work out the logistics for when the work was done since Al would then do his business entertaining at a restaurant instead of bringing guests home on those days. 

After Bunny moved out Blanche confided to Emily about all the pain she endured since the time she underwent a radical masectormy where her left breast, chest muscles and lymph glands under the left armpit were removed.  There were days fluid accumulated in her left arm.  The only solution Dr. Goodman could offer her was to take a rest.  She had to keep her left arm up so the fluid would move out of the arm. 

It was difficult for Emily to relate how that would occur but she was able to describe a little device Al made and put into the wall next to the sofa in the first floor dining area.  It was made of a very strong braided cord tied to a hook nailed into the wall.  A wooden triangle large enough for Blanche to grip with her hand was tied to the bottom of the braided cord.  Blanche had to grip this tightly and keep her left arm up as she rested on the sofa.  She liked the first floor because it was cool and quiet there.  She could doze off if she wanted to.  Blanche’s left arm was permanently two sizes bigger than her right after the mastectomy and removal of her lymph glands under her arm.  Since she went through these bouts of pain on a recurring basis, Blanche was in no rush to oversee the cleaning up of the apartment right away.  She also did not want to show the rooms to anyone, even as they began to look more tidy, little by little.

Although Blanche never complained outright her sons and daughter knew she had reached a saturation point with the apartment and renting to tenants.  Neighbors continued to inquire about the rooms but Al joked and said “We’ll see about that in a few years.”

Al and Blanche decided they weren’t going to rent to outsiders anymore.  They fixed up the rooms in anticipation of Maureen getting married.  She was willing to live with her parents and help Blanche with keeping the expense book and tax records for the house, as well as help with laundry and grocery shopping.  Eventually all six rooms in the apartment had little touches Maureen added through her craft projects and bargain shopping excursions:  colorful potholders, kitchen towels trimmed with rickrack, voile curtains with ruffles which she bought on sale at Macy’s.  In her senior year of high school Blanche and Al had bought Maureen a cedar wood Hope Chest.  This was moved upstairs and placed in the room at the back of the apartment on the third floor after Maureen got engaged. 

Topics Researched

The results of our research into the 1930 and 1940 Federal Census records for Frank’s family verify the information Emily related through this family story.  The topics researched are:

  • Using the Federal Census Records to Verify parts of the family story
  • Tabor Court
  • Local news coverage about Landlord and Tenant Problems in the 1940s

Using the Federal Census Records to Verify parts of the family story

The 1930 Federal Census record reveals that Blanche and Al were living at 1256 63rd Street with Frank (born 1927) and Alfred (born 1929).  The house cost $60 a month to rent.  This address is for a home that is still in existence today, and it is located in Tabor Court.  We were delighted to find that once again another detail from Emily’s family stories has been confirmed.  As we reviewed the other families on the page, we could see that the home values in Tabor Court were very high.  Those families that did own homes had them valued at $14-15,000 in 1930.  It may have been that this was out of reach for Blanche and Al.

The 1940 Federal Census states that Blanche and Al, as well as their tenant, had been living at 7009 14th Avenue since 1935.  From this we can estimate that the house was bought sometime between 1930 and 1935.  In 1940, the 2 family house was worth $4,750.  Even in 1940, the apartment in Blanche and Al’s house had many people living there.  Michael Siciliano was a fireman and married to Anna.  They had a son, Michael Jr. who was 2 years old.  Michael’s brother-in-laws James Masse and William Masse, both single, were also living there.  This may have been a holdover of living patterns from the Great Depression when family helped each other and it was not unusual for single relatives to move in with their siblings or cousins.    James worked in a produce market and William operated a newsstand.

We looked up Michael Siciliano in the 1950 Brooklyn Phone Directory.  There was no listing for him at 7009 14th Avenue.  It is possible that Bunny and her family moved into the apartment after that.  If this is so, then Maureen was in her late teens, about 16 going on 17 when this family story took place.  Emily’s telling made it seem like Maureen was much younger.  That may have been her perception of her future sister-in-law since Maureen was a kid at heart in many ways.

Tabor Court

Tabor Court is located between 12th and 13th Avenues and bordered on one side by 62nd Street and by 63rd Street on the other.  It is named after Tabor Homes, the company which designed and built them.  In an article about construction and development in Brooklyn, published in the Sunday, May 4, 1919 edition of The Brooklyn Daily Eagle, Tabor Homes announced that ground was broken to begin the construction of Tabor Court.  When completed each house would cost in a range of $7500 to $9000.

Ad from the real estate section of Sunday, February 29, 1920 edition of The Brooklyn Daily Eagle.

Tabor Homes, in existence from 1885 to 1920 marked their 35th year in business when construction of Tabor Court began.  On February 29, 1920 an ad was placed in The Brooklyn Daily Eagle announcing that 10 of the 80 planned houses were ready for purchase.

The ad also mentions that a golf course is nearby.  This must refer to Dyker Beach Golf Course.  In 1920 the New York City subway was still new and running at a pace us weary commuters in 2017 wish would come back—from Tabor Court one could arrive in Manhattan within 20 minutes. 

The closest subway line was the 4th Avenue-Sea Beach line stopping at Fort Hamilton Parkway Station.

Each house featured, as stated in the ad:

  • Garage
  • 6 rooms
  • Sun parlor
  • Sleeping porch
  • Open fireplaces
  • Breakfast room

Ad from The Brooklyn Daily Eagle, Thursday, May 10, 1923 edition which announced a foreclosure sale of two homes in Tabor Court.

On Monday, May 14, 1923 a foreclosure sale was held on two homes in Tabor Court.  The sale was announced through an ad in the May 10, 1923 edition of The Brooklyn Daily Eagle.  Included in the notice is a description of the features of each property which included steam heat, parquet floors and convenient location near two subway lines, the Sea Beach and West End.

Local News Coverage About Landlord and Tenant Problems in the 1940s

We could relate to the essence of the issues that concerned the tenants and landlords reported in the articles from The Brooklyn Daily Eagle and The New York Times.  The need for tenants to have adequate heat and hot water, a living space free from pests like roaches and mice, as well as landlords needing tenants who abide by their rental agreement, remain constant.  The application of the law regarding rights and responsibilities is interpreted in many ways and will change over time.  What we picked up from these few articles was something we had not been aware of previously.  Namely that in the 1930s landlords had to keep their tenants happy because economic conditions were very grave.  An empty apartment meant a loss of revenue.  Tenants, too, were limited by the low salaries and unemployment.  Newly arrived immigrants also had to be cautious about moving during the hard years of the Great Depression because of prejudice against their country of origin or their religious background.  Everyone was locked into a very limiting environment.

With the onset of WWII things began to change as people made more money and became more vocal about what they expected from the tenant and landlord relationship.  See if you can pick up that sense in the changing dynamic by reading through the summaries of each article that follow.

The Brooklyn Daily Eagle
Thursday, January 8, 1942

Jacob Shapiro wrote a reference book compiling recent court decisions on a wide variety of landlord and tenant issues.  The work was meant to be used for reference, not as a do-it-yourself guide, for both tenants and landlords.  In using recent court decisions Shapiro hoped to encourage aggrieved tenants or landlords to seek out legal help.  The demand was very great for such a reference book since more tenants were complaining about problems and landlords were seeking recourse to either solve those complaints or counter them.

The Brooklyn Daily Eagle
Wednesday, January 14, 1942
“Helen Worth-How About More Tenant-Landlord Co-operation for Mutual Benefit?”

Helen Worth was an advice columnist at The Brooklyn Daily Eagle.  Two landlords wrote letters to Helen about their side of a tenant problem.  One landlord had a tenant who repeatedly left the bedroom windows slightly open and then went out.  When they came home in the afternoon they complained that there was no heat.  The landlord asked how he could keep the outdoors warm seeing as the tenant’s carelessness made the apartment as cold as it was outside.

Another landlord rented some rooms to help bring in extra money.  The tenant abused telephone priveleges and also let hot water run throughout the night.

Helen’s answers were conciliatory but offered no real solution nor encouragement to seek legal recourse or draw up a lease.  Her advice to the first landlord was to have a polite discussion about closing the windows.  To the second landlord she suggested putting up a sign that said using the telephone was a privilege and not part of the rent agreement.  In neither case did she tell the landlords to seek legal help or advice.

The Brooklyn Daily Eagle
Tuesday, March 28, 1944
“Court Bemoans Lack of Maid In Trial of ‘Bad’ Landlord”

A female tenant brought her landlord to court for negligence.  He lived at a different location and had not attended to matters like cleaning the hallways and providing tenants with heat and hot water.  The complainant said conditions with heat and water were so severe that her maid would not come to clean her apartment.  Several other female tenants appeared in court to support the complainant.  The magistrate reprimanded the landlord for his negligence when he said he was having problems locating someone to take care of the property.  He assured her he would correct the problems even if he had to do the work himself.

The New York Times
Wednesday, August 30, 1944
“Eliman Stresses Landlords Plight”

During WWII the government froze rents so that they were 20-30% lower than what the current market could afford.  Tenants became very demanding in what they expected in terms of decorating and painting of an apartment.  This is because during the Great Depression landlords did whatever they could to keep their tenants happy.  Now with the lower rents there were more tenants than apartments.  It should have been easy to rent but the tenants demands combined with increased property taxes were making renting a losing deal on the landlord’s side.

The Brooklyn Daily Eagle
Wednesday, March 31, 1948
“Landlord-Tenant Course Now Offered by Brooklyn College”

For the Spring 1948 semester, Brooklyn College offered a course entitled “The Law of Landlord Tenant”.  There was a popular demand for such a course in view of the problems at that time in relations between tenants and landlords.

The Eagle Reported that,

“In the official Brooklyn College announcement, the course is described as ‘An analysis made for the average citizen, of the elements of the landlord-tenant relationship, by means of a review of the fundamental legal principles underlying the rights and obligations of the parties involved in this relationship.”

Discussion with Uncle Sammy on Sunday, June 4, 2017 11:15 a.m. to Noon

Uncle Sammy and I sat back and said “Wow! Did this research turn up so many levels of tenant-landlord relations to consider, no matter what the time period under review is.”  We both agree 100% with Emily’s conclusion that the running of a two-family, or multi-family, house requires a solid partnership between the homeowners and tenants.  There have to be very clear rules in place to guide not only the conditions under which the relationship operates but also how the property is maintained.  For this reason we hold that a written lease agreement is essential.

The strength of Blanche and Al’s homeownership lie in their understanding and acceptance of the roles each agreed to play in the running of the house.  Even the children understood this and accepted their part.  Maureen helped with entries to the record book.  Frank made sure the trash was put out the night before collection.  Robert and Alfred helped where needed.  Because Alfred had a very keen sense of character his parents respected any input he had about the way the tenants behaved and responded to any requests Blanche and Al put forth to the tenants.  Robert was very effective in relaying information and could be counted on to let his parents know of any exchanges he had with the tenants where they expressed concerns about the apartment, even in passing.

We do not think that Bonita should be judged harshly for the way in which the living arrangement proceeded.  We do not know for sure if Blanche and Al gave her family a lease.  Al was strict in some ways but in others very generous whenever possible.  If Bonita’s family came highly recommended he might have concluded the rental agreement with a handshake rather than a written lease.  His years living and growing up in the volatile environment of Manhattan’s Fourth Ward showed him how slumlords took advantage of their tenants.  Even when he prospered, Al never forgot that, as he loved to say, “Even the little guy needs an opportunity.”  He evaluated the person depending on how that opportunity was used and the results it brought. 

Despite Blanche telling Emily that Al wanted her to inspect the apartment each month when she collected the rent, she was hesitant to push too much.  As a busy mother, Blanche confided to Emily, she always attended to her housework first when the children were little.  In direct contrast, Bonita put people first.  She never complained that Maureen’s frequent visits were a nuisance nor did any of the family even infer that Maureen distracted Bonita from her housework.  Al would have gladly had handymen come to the apartment if Bonita had mentioned that the tiles needed cleaning or the doorknob for the bathroom door was loose.  We think that since she had a baby to care for and a lot of cooking and laundry to do the she was not keen on having her daily routine disrupted.  This could be one reason why she never asked for help when small things needed repairs.  It’s possible her father or brothers attended to it as best as they could.

A lease agreement would have provided a guarantee about how Blanche and Al could deduct the cost of repairs from the tenant’s security deposit.  In view of the situation here, though, and knowing his character we do not think Blanche and Al would have stuck to the letter of the law in terms of running their household.  What contributed to their final decision in saving the apartment for Maureen had as much to do with traditions within their family as it did with Blanche’s health.  Having Maureen in the same house was sure, we believe, to be a comfort to the entire family.  Although Blanche never suffered a relapse of breast cancer it was always a concern that ran throughout the background in the family.  Knowing Maureen was there to take on the role of caretaker for Blanche had to be worth more to the family than any further rental income.  There were other considerations in the decision that had nothing to do with the house as a way to make money. 

Uncle Sammy and I also discussed the way events played out when Josie and Sam owned a two-family house.  EmilyAnn added to the discussion as well when sharing what happened between Emily and Frank after they bought a two-family house.  In each instance we now see that the roles between husband and wife as joint owners of the home were based on patterns of behavior that were in place for each couple when they were children.  These experiences illustrate that we not only inherit DNA but also our attitudes and the roles we enact throughout our lives.  The discussion of homeownership for Josie and Sam, as well as Emily and Frank, will be left to future postings when we reach those milestones of their lives in the family history narrative.  To extract them from the bigger picture will remove some of the humor and some of the lessons to be learned since the telling will be out of the context in which the event described occurred.

We note that in this family story, and the ones featured in the next two postings, there is still Emily’s presence in the sense of the touchy way in which the narrative unfolds and the harsh judgments of participants that sometimes comes through.  Uncle Sammy and I know that during her courtship and the early years of her relationship with Frank’s family, Emily came to love them all in her own way, even when she disagreed with them.  She developed a very protective attitude about the family and felt hurt when people who didn’t know the family at all said very thoughtless things about them based on hearsay.  We ask our readers not to judge Emily, either, as they read these stories.  We believe they are a sign of her deepening relationships and maturity despite the sometimes lack of objectivity in the telling.  It is also a way to convey something of her personality and give the postings a true sense of who she was.  In time her feelings about the family would change again.  The stories will reflect that since family life never exists in a bubble but is affected by changes to the social climate and values as well as a certain leveling out of emotions once a couple settle into married life.

*Note:  Surname

Terry (surname)
Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terry_(surname)

*Terry was the name Frank’s family used professionally.  It will be used for our purposes because it may help bring us into contact with surviving business contacts or their descendants who may be able to offer us more information about Al’s professional life.  There is another family with the same Sicilian surname as Frank’s family that is still a part of the Dyker Heights community.  We are not related and have no contact with them.  That is another reason for using Al’s business name.  If you have further questions you may contact EmilyAnn by email.  Please do not post comments on this at the posting.

Resources

Verifying the information in the Federal Census Records

1930 Federal Census
Citation Information
DetailYear: 1930; Census Place: Brooklyn, Kings, New York; Roll: 1510; Page: 17B; Enumeration District: 1163; Image: 384.0; FHL microfilm: 2341245

1940 Federal Census
Citation Information
DetailYear: 1940; Census Place: New York, Kings, New York; Roll: T627_2589; Page: 10A; Enumeration District: 24-1695

Tabor Court

“Western Brooklyn.The alleys of Bay Ridge and Sunset Park
forgotten new york
http://forgotten-ny.com/2000/05/western-brooklyn-the-alleys-of-bay-ridge-hometown-usa/

The Brooklyn Daily Eagle
Sunday, May 4, 1919
page 53
“Big Building Total Brooklyn At Front”
Announcement of plans to build Tabor Court
https://bklyn.newspapers.com/image/58282099/?terms=%22tabor%2Bcourt%22

The Brooklyn Daily Eagle
Sunday, February 29, 1920
page 50
Ad for “Latest Home Offering Tabor Homes”
https://bklyn.newspapers.com/image/55313575/?terms=%22tabor%2Bcourt%22

The Brooklyn Daily Eagle
Thursday, May 10, 1923
page 20
Notice of Foreclosure Sale of 1214 and 1216 Tabor  Court
Description of interiors
https://bklyn.newspapers.com/image/60007672/?terms=%22tabor%2Bcourt%22

Local News Coverage About Landlord and Tenant Problems in the 1940s

The Brooklyn Daily Eagle
Thursday, January 8, 1942
page 4

“Before You Sue The Landlord Consult Lawyer Shapiro’s Book”
by Jane Corby
https://bklyn.newspapers.com/image/52678683/?terms=%22tenant%2Bproblems%22

The Brooklyn Daily Eagle
Wednesday, January 14, 1942
page 8
“Helen Worth-How About More Tenant-Landlord Co-operation for Mutual Benefit?”
https://bklyn.newspapers.com/image/52681331/?terms=%22good%2Blandlord%22

The Brooklyn Daily Eagle
Tuesday, March 28, 1944
“Court Bemoans Lack of Maid In Trial of ‘Bad’ Landlord”
page 18
https://bklyn.newspapers.com/image/52698381/?terms=%22bad%2Blandlord%22

The New York Times (subscription needed)
Wednesday, August 30, 1944
“Elliman Stresses Landlords’ Plight”
page 28
https://timesmachine.nytimes.com/timesmachine/1944/08/30/87467154.html?pageNumber=28

The Brooklyn Daily Eagle
“Landlord-Tenant Course Now Offered by Brooklyn College”
Wednesday, March 31, 1948
page 26
https://bklyn.newspapers.com/image/52888902/?terms=%22tenant%2Bproblems%22